University of Newcastle, its library and collections

by Dr W. Kelly

Address: Robinson Library, University of Newcastle, NEWCASTLE NE1 7RU

Telephone: (44 0) 191 222 7662



Brief history of the institution

It was not uncommon in the nineteenth century for the organised teaching of medicine to precede that in any other subject in the development of a university, and Newcastle was no exception. Medical instruction began on 1st October 1834 and in June of 1852 the College of Medicine formed a link with the University of Durham, which was itself less than twenty years old. This link put Newcastle into a unique, if imperfectly understood, position among English provincial medical schools. From that point until the end of the century the College made steady, unremarkable progress.

While the College was a private, inward-looking venture, the College of Science had a much wider but less clearly defined aim. The teaching of applied sciences, which had been the subject of public discussions in the rapidly industrialised Newcastle since the early 1830s, was the main purpose of the latter College, but a certain amount of teaching also took place in arts subjects, notably foreign languages, which had an arguably applied aim. The creation of various chairs in agriculture, engineering and education indicated a growth, even if not prosperity, except in the strictly academic sense. While the machinery set up to deal with the existing link between Durham and Newcastle had inherent organisational failings, the static position of the former and the growth of the latter put further problems in the way of establishing an independent university in Newcastle.

While the last years of the nineteenth century and the early years of the twentieth witnessed a period of rapid change in England’s universities, the members of the College of Medicine, sticking to the inward-looking nature of their institution, saw little need for change, but they could see some justification for this stance in the unusual freedom and self-government which the College enjoyed. The lower value put upon the link with Durham by the College of Science, whose members made use of various vested interests to raise further confusion after the passing of the Durham Act of 1908, which had grouped the non-medical departments at Newcastle into Armstrong College. However the complaints from Newcastle that the university’s permanent officers lived and worked in Durham were offset by the fact that new chairs established in Newcastle in history, philosophy and economics pointed to a general development in the arts. It was this then recent, robust development in the teaching at Armstrong College which enabled the institution to survive not only the government’s devastating treatment of it during the First World War but also the financial difficulties caused by lower support from the local authorities through the inter-war years.

It should be no surprise that the feeling in the years following the Second World War of the inadequacy, indeed irrelevance, of the university’s organisation was felt more strongly in Newcastle than in Durham, although that feeling was not held equally throughout the different faculties. One consistent factor, however, was the stubborn face which the Faculty of Medicine set against the need for change. In 1947 radical changes were proposed, which, if implemented, would have had the effect of creating separate universities. One compromise proposal, aimed at alleviating the unsatisfactory position of Newcastle, was that the name of the overall institution should be changed to Durham and Newcastle. However this unsatisfactory position continued for another fifteen years until 1963, when an independent University of Newcastle was finally set up.

Secondary literature:

E.M. Bettenson, The University of Newcastle upon Tyne: an historical introduction 1834-1971 … [Newcastle,] 1971.

G. Dale, F.J.W. Miller, Newcastle School of Medicine, 1834-1984 sesquicentennial scrapbook [Newcastle-upon-Tyne:] Faculty of Medicine, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, [1984]. 152p.

Brief history of the library

The founders of the College of Science in 1871 were a group of remarkable men, many of them members of the Society of Friends. They received help from the leading colliery proprietors and engineers of the district.

For many years there was no trace of a college library and students had to use the libraries of the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society and the Mining Institute and the private collections of the few professors.

In late 1888 the College re-opened in its own buildings near the Town Moor. Though only a fragment of the the College as it became later, it is here that the history of the College’s library starts. The room provided for the Principal acted also as the library, which had to depend on donations for many years. In 1894 a room in the attic was set aside for use as a library. By the time of the opening in 1906 of the main block of what became Armstrong College a library designed to hold twenty thousand volumes had been included in the plans. This new accommodation, however, was relatively short-lived, as the library was closed to students for the duration of World War I, when it was used as a military hospital. A much larger space, designed to hold two hundred thousand volumes, was provided in 1926, when its stock was augmented by the donation of several important collections from members of the teaching staff. At that time the libraries of the Durham School of Medicine at Newcastle and the Royal Victoria Infirmary were transferred to the new building. More than tweny years later two further stack floors were added to the 1926 building, provision for which had been made in the original design of the building. Further development to this site was added in 1960, when a large modern extension was added. More than twenty years later, in 1982, a new library was opened, when the 1926 building and extension of 1960 were modified for other usages. Seven years later the new library was renamed the Robinson Library in honour of a locally born bookseller, Philip Robinson, who had moved with his brother, Lionel, to London in 1930. A large extension to the Robinson Library was added in 1996.

Secondary literature:

F. Bradshaw, ‘Armstrong College Library’, Library Association Record, N.S. 4, 1926, 81-86; Opening of the extensions to the University Library Newcastle upon Tyne by Sir Frank Francis … 28th September 1960 ([Newcastle, 1960]); The naming of the Robinson Library 16th October, 1989 ([Newcastle, 1989]); The Robinson Library extension was formally opened by Sir Brian Fender … 26 September 1996 ([Newcastle, 1996]); University of Newcastle. University Library, The University Library was opened by His Grace the Duke of Northumberland29th June 1983 ([Newcastle, 1983]).

The main strengths of the early foreign imprints in the care of Special Collections lie in the remnants of various grammar school libraries, which are solid evidence of the excellence of the education provided by these and many other similar institutions, and in medical works. For this reason I have listed a little more extensively than might otherwise be expected of a survey some of the titles found therein.

Printed guide:

University of Newcastle. Robinson Library, Special collections. [Edited by M. Wood.] (Newcastle, 2009.)

18th Century Collection

‘Approximately 4 000 volumes, printed before 1801 …’

C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Epistolarum libri decem. 2v. (Leipzig, 1800-1802), Arrianus, Expeditionis Alexandri libri septem. Ed. F. Schneider (Leipzig, 1798), M.F. Quintilianus, De institutione oratoria libri duodecim. Ed. G.L. Spalding. 6v. (Leipzig, 1798-1834), Σκολια: hoc est Carmina convivialia Graecorum metris suis restituta et animadversionibus illustrata (Jena, 1798), J.C.G. Ernesti, Lexicon technologiae Graecorum rhetoricae (Leipzig, 1795), Joannes Tzetzes, Antehomerica, Homerica et posthomerica. Ed. F. Jacobs (Leipzi, 1793), L. Antoninus, Metamorphoseon synagoge. Ed. G. Xylander (Leipzig, 1791), Aristotle, Opera omnia. Ed. J.T. Buhle. 5v. (Zweibrücken, 1791-1800), F.C. Freiherr von Beroldingen, Die Vulkane älterer und neuerer Zeiten: physikalisch und mineralogisch betrachtet. 2 Bde. (Mannheim, 1791), J.H.J. Köppen, Erklärende Anmerkungen zu den zum Gebrauche auf Schulen ausgewählten Oden und Liedern vom Horaz. 2 Bde. (Braunschweig, 1791-1793), C.W. Nose, Orographischer Brief über das sauerländische Gebirge in Westphalen an Herrn J.P. Becher (Frankfurt/Main, 1791), C.v. Linné, Philosophia botanica, in qua explicantur fundamenta botanica. Editio tertia. Ed. C.L. Willdenow (Berlin, 1790), J.F. Fischer, De Hebraismis Novi Testamenti commentarius (Leipzig, 1778), C. Plinius Secundus, Naturalis historia. Ed. J. Harduin. 10v. (Leipzig, 1778-1791), Magazin für die Liebhaber der Entomologie. 2 Bde. ([Zürich,] 1778-1779), E.A.W.v. Zimmermann, Geographische Geschichte der Menschen und der allgemein verbreiteten vierfüssigen Thiere. 3 Bde. (Leipzig, 1778-1883), J.C. Hirsch, Bibliotheca numismatica exhibens catalogum auctorum qui de re monetaria et nummis tam antiquis quam recentioribus scripsere (Nürnberg, 1760) and G.C. Bauer, De caldae et caldi apud veteres potu liber singularis (Leipzig, 1721).

Bainbrigg Library (Appleby Grammar School)

‘Deposited by the Governors of Appleby Grammar School, this [is a] collection of 1 200 predominantly classical, theological, literary and historical works …’

E. Alvarez, De institutione grammatica libri tres (Köln, 1596), Aetius Antiochenus, De cognoscendis et curandis morbis sermones sex (Basel, 1533), R. Agricola, De inuentione dialectica libri III (Köln, 1538), Alexander ab Alexandro, Genialium dierum libri sex (Frankfurt, 1594), J.H. Alsted, Thesaurus chronologiae in quo universa temporum et historiarum series in omni vitae genere ponitur, etc. Editio tertia. (Herborn, 1637), Aristophanes, Comoediae undecim. Ed. A. Divus (Basel, 1596), Aristoteles, In primum, secundum, & initium tertii libri Ethicorum … ad Nicomachum (Zürich, 1563), G. Arthus, Mercurii Gallobelgici succenturia, sive rerum in Gallia et Belgio potissimum, Hispania quoque … Transylvania, etc. (Frankfurt/Main, 1621), Athenaeus, Deipnosophistarum, hoc est argute sciteque in convivio differentium. Lib. XV. Ed. J. Bedrot (Basel, 1535), S. Austrius, De infantium siue puerorum, morborum, et symptomatum, dignotione, tum curatione liber (Basel, 1540), J. Brandmuller, Analysis typica librorum V.T. poeticorum (Basel, 1621), Epigrammatum Graecorum annotationibus J. Brodaei … libri VII (Frankfurt/Main, 1600), A. Calepio, Dictionar: graec: et lat: (Basel, 1546), Callimachus, Hymni. Ed. S. Gelen (Basel, 1532), M.P. Cato, Libri de re rustica (Basel, 1535), M.T. Cicero, Opera omnia quae exstant. Ed. G.L. Froben. 2v. (Hamburg, 1618-1619), P. Coelemann, Opus prosodicum Graecum novum (Frankfurt/Main, 1651), N. Conti, Mythologiae, sive explanationis fabularum, libri decem (Frankfurt/Main, 1584), M. Cordier, Colloquia Latino-Gallico-Italico-Germanica (Strassburg, 1622) and C.S. Curio, Thesaurus linguae Latinae. Ed. A. Burer (Strassburg, 1604).


Catalogue of the Bainbrigg Library of Appleby Grammar School. Compiled by E. Hinchcliffe (Newcastle, 1977)

Fletcher Collection

‘Books bequeathed to the University by the late Professor Fletcher, formerly of the University’s Department of Classics. There are a number of antiquarian editions of classical texts, amongst them examples of the output of such early printing houses as the Aldine and the Elzevier presses.’

The description of this collection does what it says on the tin. As the private working library of a professional classicist, it is by far the best body of such material in the north of England.

Ammianus Marcellinus, Rerum gestarum qui de XXXI. supersunt libri XVIII. Ed. F. Lindenbrog. 2v. (Hamburg, 1609), C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Panegyricus Traiano dictus. Ed. G.E. Gierig (Leipzig, 1796), T. Livius, Decades tres cum dimidia (Basel, 1535), Dionysius Halicarnensis, Τα ευρισκομενα. Ed. F. Sylburg. 2v. (Leipzig, 1691), Isocrates, Απαντα. Ed. H. Wolf (Basel, 1570), M. Manilius, Astronomicon. Ed. R. Bentley (Strassburg, 1767), M.T. Varro, De lingua Latina. Editio accurata. 2v. (Zweibrücken, 1788), Q. Horatius Flaccus, Opera. Ed. C.D. Jani. 2v. (Leipzig, 1778-1782), Pindaros, Periodos. Ed. E. Schmidt ([Wittenberg,] 1616), Plutarchos, Τα σωζομενα απαντα. 2v. (Frankfurt/Main, 1620) and S. Propertius, [Works.] Ed. F.G. Barth (Leipzig, 1777).

Heversham Collection

‘The Library of Heversham Grammar School in Westmorland. The Library was intended for the use of neighbouring clergy as well as for the masters and pupils of the School, and books were also given by local gentry and former pupils. Two MSS. Catalogues, compiled abound 1800, show that the Library then consisted of 600 volumes, of which about 450 survive. The collection consists mainly of editions of classical or theological authors, with approximately half of the volumes having been printed before 1700 and a few before 1600.’

C. Dieterich, Analysis logica evangeliorum dominicalium (Marburg, 1628), Apollodorus Atheniensis, Bibliotheces sive de deorum origine, libri III. Ed. B. Egio (Heidelberg, 1599), B. Scharf, Arkeuthologia, seu juniperi descriptio curiosa (Frankfurt/Main, 1679), Concilia generalia et provincialia, quaecunque reperiri potuerunt. 4v. (Köln, 1606), Eusebii Pamphili, Ruffini, Socratis, Theodoriti, Sozomeni, Theodori, Euangrii, et Dorothei ecclesiastica historia. Ed. J. Grynaeus (Basel, 1587), Heliodorus, Aethiopicorum libri X. Ed. H. Commelin (Heidelberg, 1596), D. Erasmus, Io. Frobenius studiorum liberalium mystis, etc. (Basel, 1520), J.A. Fabricius, Bibliotheca Latina, sive Notitia auctorum veterum Latinorum (Hamburg, 1721), St. Basil, Omnia … quae extant, opera. Ed. J. Cornarius. 4v. (Bael, 1540), F. Josephus, Opera, quae ad nostram aetatem, pervenerunt, omnia (Frankfurt/Main, 1580), P. Virgilius Maro, Bucolica, Georgica (Frankfurt/Main, 1583), P. Clüver, Introductio in universam geographiam tam vetus quam nova (Braunschweig, 1642), Plutarchos, Ethicorum sive moralium pars III. Ed. G. Xylander (Frankfurt/Main, 1592), P. Mela, De orbis situ, libri III (Basel, 1595) and F. Feuardent, In librum Esther, commentarii (Köln, 1595).

Kepier Collection

‘The library of Kepier Grammar School, Houghton-le-Spring, which contains about 750 books, mainly 17th and 18th century works on classics and theology, 4 incunabula and 30 post-incunabula.’

M.T. Cicero, De oratore (Nürnberg, 1497), N. Perottus, Cornucopiae seu latinae linguae commentarii (Basel, 1526[?]), Herodotus, Libri novem musarum nominibus inscripti (Köln, 1526), S. Munster, Dictionarium trilingue in quo scilicet latinis vocabulis in ordinem alphebeticum digestis respondent graeca et hebraica (Basel, 1537), C. Suetonius Tranquillus, XII Caesares accesserunt. Ed. H. Loritius et al. (Basel, 1537), Thucydides, De bello Peloponnesiaco. Libri octo. Ed. L. Valla & H. Estienne (Frankfurt/Main, 1594) and Diodorus Siculus, Bibliothecae historiae libri XV. Ed. L. Rhodomanus (Hanau, 1604).

Secondary literature:

R.W. Ramsey, ‘Kepier School Library, Houghton-le-Spring, and its library’, Archaeologia Aeliana, 3 ser., 1907, 306-333.

Medical Collection

‘Over 3 000 volumes and hundreds of pamphlets covering a broad range of medical subjects and the history of medicine. The collection … includes the medical library of noted South Shields doctor T.M. Winterbottom (1766-1859).’

J.D. Metzger, Adversaria medica. 2v. (Frankfurt/Main, 1775-1778), Animadversiones in pharmacopeiam Augustanam et annexam ejus mantissam, etc. Nunc tertium revisa. Ed. J. Zwelfer (Nürnberg, 1767), A. de Haen, Ratio medendi in nosocomio practico Vindobonensi. 15 pts. (Wien, 1757-1771), L. Luigini, Aphrodisiacus, sive De lue venerea, etc. Ed. C.G. Gruner (Jena, 1789), J.F. Gmelin, Apparatus medicaminum tam simplicium quam praeparatorum et compositorum in praxeos adiumentum consideratus. 2v. (Göttinge, 1795-1796), J.A. Murray, Apparatus medicaminum … consideratus. 6v. (Göttingen, 1788-1794), A.v. Haller, Auctarium ad A. Halleri Elementa physiologiae corporis humani excerptum ex nova editione et adaptatum veteri. 4v. (Leipzig, 1780), T.W. Schröder, Commentationis medicae de phthisi hepatica sectio prima symptomatologiam sistens (Göttingen, 1783), H.A. Wrisberg, Commentationum medici, physiologici anatomici et obstetricii argumenti … volumen primum (Göttingen, 1783), K.G.T. Kortum, Commentarius de vitio scrofuloso. 2v. (Lemgo, 1789-1790), D.W. Triller, Opuscula medica ac medico philologica. Ed. C.C. Krause. 3v. (Frankfurt/Main, 1766-1772), L.G. Klein, Interpres clinicus, sive De morborum indole (Frankfurt/Main, 1771), S.T.v. Sömmering, De corporis humani fabrica. 6v. (Frankfurt/Main, 1794-1801), F. Schraud, De febribus periodum habentibus observationes novae (Wien, 1797), J.A. Rechberger, Dissertatio de vecte emendato, ejusque usu et utilitate in arte obstetricia (Wien, 1779), F. Hoffmann, Opuscula medico-practica, etc. (Halle, 1736), W. Fabricius Hildanus, Observationum & curationum chirurgicarum centuria V. (Frankfurt, 1627), J.Z. Platner, Institutiones chirurgicae rationalis tum medicae tum manualis in usus discentium … Editio altera (Leipzig, 1758), G. Borsieri de Kanilfeld, Institutionum medicinae practicae … editio nova. 4v. (Leipzig, 1798), J.F. Blumenbach, Introductio in historiam medicinae litterariam (Göttingen, 1786), I.J. Wetsch, Medicina ex pulsu sive Systema doctrinae sphygmicae (Wien 1770), J.J. Ritter von Plenck, Novum systema tumorum quo hi morbi in sua genera et species redeguntur (Wien, 1767), J.N. Pechlin, Observationum physico-medicarum libri tres (Hamburg, 1691), J. Wernischek, Regulae venaesectionis secundum ipsas morborum causas effectrices, sive suam medendi norman dispositae (Wien, 1783), G.H. Eisenmann, Tabulae anatomicae quatuor uteri duplicis observationem rariorem sistentes (Strassburg, 1752), L. Lauth, Nosologia chirurgica (Strassburg, 1788), P.C.F. Werner, Vermium intestinalium praesertim taeniae humanae brevis expositio (Leipzig, 1782) and B.L. Tralles, Usus opii salubris et noxius, in morborum medela, solidis et certis principiis superstructus. Editio altera auctior. 4 pts. (Breslau, 1762-1782).


‘The term ‘post-incunabula’ is used here for English books printed between 1501 and 1640, but also includes books printed on the Continent up to 1600. The collection holds 650 volumes, among which are early Bibles, well-known herbals, dictionaries, medical works and editions of the classics.’

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya, Ob usum experientiamque multiplicem, et ob certissimas ex demonstrationibus logicis indicationes (Basel, 1544), A. Turnèbe, Adversariorum tomi III: auctorum loci, qui in his sine certa nota appellabantur, etc. (Strassburg, 1599), Aetius, Contractae ex veteribus medicinae tetrabiblos, etc. (Basel, 1549), A. Antoninus, Itinerarium (Köln, 1600), P. Becker, Euangelicae conciones (Basel, 1538), Aristotle, Opera. Ed. F. Sylburg. 11v. (Frankfurt/Main, 1584-1596), A. Gentili, De armis Romanis libri duo (Hanau, 1599), Alexander Trallianus, Libri duodecim, Graeci et Latini. Ed. J. Günther (Basel, [1556]), C. Suetonius Tranquillus, XII Caesares. Ed. H. Loritius (Basel, 1560), C. Sigonio, Historiarum de occidentali imperio, libri XX (Basel, 157(0, G. Tagliacozzi, Cheirurgia nova … de narium, aurium, labiorumque defectu (Frankfurt/Main, 1598), K. Gesner, De rerum fossilium, lapidum et gemmarum … liber (Zürich, 1565), Corpus historiae Byzantinae in quo non solum res a Graecis imperatoribus a tempore Constantini Magni, ad Constantium postremum, et Constantinopolim a turcis occupatam (Frankfurt/Main, 1568), G. Agricola, De re metallica libri XII (Basel, 1561) and J. Fernel, Universa medicina … Editio postrema (Frankfurt/Main, 1577).

Catalogue: W.S. Mitchell, A list of post-incunabula in the University Library of Newcastle upon Tyne (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1965). (University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Library publications; extra series 3.)

Pybus Collection

‘Created by Emeritus Professor F.C. Pybus, D.C.L., F.R.C.S.[,] the collection comprises 2 000 volumes … The books are classics of the history of medicine, with particular reference to anatomy, surgery and medical illustration …’

Alessio Piemontese, De scretis libri septem. Tr. J. J. Vecker (Basel, 1568), Alexander Trallianus, De singularium corporis partium, ab hominis coronide ad imum usque calcaneum vitiis, aegritudinibus, et injuriis, libri (Basel, 1533), C. Apicius, De re culinaria libri X (Basel, 1541), G.T. Asch, De primo pare nervorum medullae spinalis (Göttingen, 1750), G. Asellius, De lactibus sive lacteis venis quarto vasorum mesaraicorum genere (Basel, 1628), S. Austrius, De infantium siue puerorum, morborum, et symptomatum, dignotione, tum curatione liber (Basel, 1540), Galen, Opera omnia. Ed. L. Fuchs et al. 5v. (Basel, 1538), C. Gesner, Chirurgia (Zürich, 1555), C. Girtanner, Abhandlung über die venerische Krankheit. 3v. (Göttingen, 1788-1789), J. Gorraeus, Definitionum medicarum libri XXIII, literis Graecis distincti (Frankfurt/Main, 1601), Gynaeciorum sive de mulierum affectibus commentarii Graecorum, Latinorum, barbarorum, iam olim et nunc recens editorum. Ed. C. Bauhin. 4v. (Basel, 1586-1588), A.v. Haller, Bibliotheca chirurgica. 2v. (Bern, 1774-1775), ibid., Icones anatomicae, etc. (Göttingen, 1756), L. Heister, Compendium anatomicum totam rem anatomicam brevissime complectens. Editio altera (Altdorf, 1719), Hippocrates, Opera (Basel, 1526), W. Höfer, Hercules medicum sive locorum communium medicorum tomus primus, etc. (Wien, 1657), C.W. Hufeland, Die Kunst das menschliche Leben zu verlängern (Wien, 1797), A. Scarpa, De penitiori ossium structura commentarius (Leipzig, 1799), J.G. Schenck, Monstrorum historia memorabilis, monstrosa humanarum partium miracula, stupendis conformationum formulis ab utero materno enata, vivis exemplis, observationibus, et picturis, referens, etc. (Frankfurt/Main, 1608[?]), J. Schiller von Hereren, De peste Britannica commentarius vere aureus (Basel, 1531), C.V. Schneider, Liber primus de catarrhis (Wittenberg, 1660), Scribonius Largus, De compositione medicamentorum liber (Basel, 1529), Scriptores neurologici minores selecti sive opera minora ad anatomiam physiologiam et pathologiam nervorum spectantia. Ed. C.F. Ludwig. 3v. (Leipzig, 1791-1793), J. Scultetus, Χειροπλοθηκη seu … Armamentarium chirurgicum XLIII. tabulis aeri … incisis (Ulm, 1655), D. Sennert, De scorbuto tractatus (Wittenberg, 1624), M.A. Severino, De efficaci medicina libri III (Frankfurt/Main, 1646), J. Siegemundin, Die Königl. Preussische und Chur-Brandenburg. Hof-Wehe-Mutter, das ist: ein höchst nöthiger Unterricht von schweren und unrecht-stehenden Geburthen, in einem Gespräch vorgestellet (Berlin, 1752), S.T.v. Sömmering, Vom Baue des menschlichen Körpers. 5v. (Frankfurt/Main, 1791-1796) and M. Stoll, Rationis medendi in Nosocomio practico Vindobonensi. Pars prima [-tertia]. 3v. (Wien, 1770-1780).


Catalogue of the Pybus Collection of medical books, letters and engravings 15th-20th centuries held in the University Library Newcastle upon Tyne. Compiled by J.S. Emmerson (Manchester, 1981)

Rare Books

‘Approximately 1 000 books and pamphlets printed between 1641 and the present day …’

J.A. Fabricius, Salutaris lux evangelii toti orbi per divinam gratiam exoriens (Hamburg, 1731), M. Goldast, Philologicarum epistolarum centuria una diversorum a renatis literis doctissimorum virorum (Leipzig, 1674), J.C. Heilbronner, Historia matheseos universae a mundo condito ad seculum P.C.N. XVI, etc. (Leipzig, 1742), E. Kämpfner, Amoenitatum exoticarum politico-physico-medicarum fasciculi (Lemgo, 1712), M. Lipen, Bibliotheca realis philosophica omnium materiarum, rerum & titulorum, in universo totius philosophiae amitii occurrentium. 2v. (Frankfurt/Main, 1682) and.Sibyllinorum oraculorum libri VIII. Ed. S. Castellion (Basel, [1555].)

Sandes Library (Kendal Grammar School)

‘From the library of Kendal Grammar School, the collection consists of 350 volumes and includes some notable examples of early printing and binding.’

St. Ambrose, Omnia opera. 5v. (Basel, 1555), C. Angelus, Summa angelica de casibus conscientiae (Nürnberg, 1498), St. Anselm, Opera omnia (Köln, 1612), Aristotle, Opera Latinitate donata. 2v. (Basel, 1542), J. Arquierius, Dictionarium theologicum (Basel, 1567), St. Augustine, De civitate Dei. Ed. T. Valois & N. Trivet (Basel, 1489), C. Baronio, Annales ecclesiastici in epitomen redacti. Editio altera (Mainz, 1623), Biblia sacra. Ed. L. Marius (Köln, 1621), Concordantiae bibliorum (Hanau, 1618), J. Brenz sr., In scriptum apostoli et evangelistae Mathae commentarius (Tübingen, 1567), C. Brunus, De haereticis in genere (Mainz, 1549), H. Bullinger, In Evangelium secundum Matthaeum commentariorum libri XII (Zürich, 1542), M. Chemnitz, Examen Concilii Tridentini (Frankfurt/Main, 1609), St. Chrysostom, Expositio in Divi Pauli epistolas (Heidelberg, 1596), Expositio perpetua in Evangelium secundum Johannem (Heidelberg, 1603) and Expositio perpetua in Novum Testamentum (Heidelberg, 1603), D. Erasmus, Epistolae palaeonaeoi (Freiburg i. Br., 1532), M. Flacius Illyricus, Quarta centuria ecclesiasticae historiae (Basel, 1560), A. Gerardus, Commentarii in epistolas D. Pauli ad Philippenses (Zürich, 1582), Commentarii in epistolas D. Pauli ad Timotheum (Zürich, 1582) and Commentarii in omnes D. Pauli epistolas (Zürich, 1584), P. Gregoire, Syntagma iuris universi. Haec editio quintum nunc in lucem prodit (Frankfurt/Main, 1611), R. Hospinianus, De templis, etc. Editio secunda (Zürich, 1603), St. Jerome, Opera omnia. Ed. D. Erasmus. 8v. (Basel, 1516), S. Kis, Theologicae sincerae loci communes de Deo et homine (Basel, 1585), T. Livius, Latinae historiae principis decades tres (Basel, 1543), B . de Medina, Scholastica commentaria in D. Thomae Aquinatis. 2v. (Köln, 1618-1619), W. Musculus, In divi Ioannis apostoli evengelium commentarii (Basel, 1580), J. Nauclerus, Memorabilium omnis aetatis et omnium gentium chronici commentarii. 2v. (Tübingen, 1516), St. Origen, Opera. 2v, (Basel, 1571), Plutarchos, Vitae parallelae. Ed. G. Xylander. 2v. (Frankfurt/Main, 1592), J. Scapula, Lexicon Graeco-Latinum (Basel, 1628-1629), P. Stevartius, Commentarius in utramque D. Pauli apostoli, ad Thessalonicos, epistolam (Ingolstadt, 1609), Thucydides, De bello Peloponnesiaco (Leipzi, 1790), P.M. Vermigli, In Epistolam S. Pauli Apostoli ad Romanos commentarii (Basel, 1558), R. Walter sr., In prophetas duodecim, quos vocant minores. Editio postrema (Zürich, 1582) and G. Zabarella, De rebus naturalibus libri xxx (Köln, 1590).


A. Elliot and J. Bagnall, Short-title list of the Sandes Library (Kendal Grammar School) deposited in Newcastle University Library (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1969) ((University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Library publications. Extra series, no. 11.)

St Bees School Library

‘The Library of St. Bees School, Cumbria, was built up during the 17th century by donations from the local gentry and clergy, and was described by Daniel Defoe as ‘very valuable and still increasing’. The collection contains roughly 400 volumes, mainly of theology and classical literature, of which 102 date from the 16th century.’

T. Hariot, Admiranda narratio fida tamen, de commodis et incolarum ritibus Virginiae, etc. (Frankfurt/Main, 1590), A. Krantz, Saxonia: de Saxonicae gentis vetusta origine, longinquis expeditionibus susceptis, & bellis domi pro libertate diu fortiterq. gestis. Ed. N. Cisnerus (Frankfurt/Main, 1580), C. Vorst, Anti-Bellarminus contractus, hoc est, Compendiosum examen omnium fidei controversiarum quae hoc tempore inter evangelicos & pontificios agitantur (Hanau, 1610), Ahmad ibn Sirin, Apomasaris apotelesmata, sive, De significatis et eventis insomniorum, ex Indorum, Persarum, Aegyptiorumque disciplina (Frankfurt/Main, 1577), P. Melanchthon, Argumentorum et obiectionum, de praecipuis articulis doctrinae Christianae, cum responsionibus. Ed. C. Pezelius (Neustadt a.d. Haardt, 1582), M. Martini, Christianae doctrinae summa capita (Herborn, 1603), J. Lefèvre d’Etaples, Commentarii initiatorii in quatuor Euangelia (Basel, 1523), B. Westheimer, Conciliatio partum et conciliorum & decretorum cum sacra scriptura (Zürich, 1563), Hervaeus Burgidolensis, Luculentissimae in omnes … Pauli Apostoli epistolas enarrationes (Köln, 1533), R. Gwalther, D. Lucas Evangelista, etc. (Zürich, 1573), D. Alvarez, De auxiliis divinae gratiae et humani arbitrii viribus et libertate. Editio postrema (Köln, 1621), H. Weller, Enarratio epistolarum dominicalium recens edita et locupletata (Nürnberg, 1551), W. Capito, Hexemeron Dei opus explicatum (Strassburg, 1539), G. Zanchi, De natura Dei seu, De divinis attributis libri V (Neustadt a.d. Haardt, 1590), E. Hasenmüller, Historia Iesuitici ordinis, etc. (Frankfurt/Main, 1595), L. Valla, Opera (Basel, [1543]), P.v. Foreest, Observationum et curationum medicinalium ac chirurgicarum opera omnia (Frankfurt/Main, 1634) and C.S. Curione, Thesaurus linguae Latinae, etc. 3v. (Basel, 1561).

Printed guide:

R.E.O. Pearson, A guide to the provenence of the 17th and early 18th century library of St. Bees School (Newcastle, 1994.)

Article by Dr W. Kelly

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